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Brewing Techniques in Practice
Brewing Techniques in Practice

This handbook provides indispensable guidance to students of brewing technology as well as industry professionals, offering a comprehensive overview of beer production, including modern equipment and process engineering, raw materials, quality management, product stability, sensory analysis, microbiology, specialty beers and the health-related aspects of beer consumption.

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This handbook provides indispensable guidance to students of brewing technology as well as industry professionals, offering a comprehensive overview of beer production, including modern equipment and process engineering, raw materials, quality management, product stability, sensory analysis, microbiology, specialty beers and the health-related aspects of beer consumption.

The principles of biochemistry and their relationship to brewing technology are explored and illustrated in clear, understandable text, tables and figures. Each chapter examines a specific topic of beer production in-depth, tracing it through malting, brewing and various other processes to the final product, with the ultimate goal of improving the quality of the finished beer. A discussion of commonly encountered problems and their origins along with valuable troubleshooting tips and insightful solutions make this book an essential and practical resource for anyone in the brewing industry.

Every chapter in this volume also includes relevant findings from current research in brewing science. Standard reference values for important substances in wort and beer as well as aroma compounds and higher alcohols can be found in the appendices.

Brewing Techniques in Practice


MALT

Introduction

The Quality Attributes of Barley Malt and Wheat Malt

Quality attributes of barley malt

Cytolysis
Proteolysis
Amylolysis
Additional malt specifications
      DMS precursor
      TBI (thiobarbituric acid index)
      Malt color and boiled wort color
      pH

Quality criteria for wheat malt

Cytolysis
Proteolysis
Amylolysis

Food Safety

Summary
Overview
References

HOPS

Introduction

Valuable compounds in hops

Bitter acids
Aroma compounds
Polyphenols
Analytical characterization of commonly encountered hop varieties

Hop products
Analysis methods

Special Aspects of Hops in Brewing Applications

Hop addition

Beer produced with a low hopping rate
Beer produced with a high hop rate
Beer with a pronounced hop aroma
Beer enriched with xanthohumol
Adding hops on the cold side of production
Lightstruck flavor

Hop utilization
Foam
Microbiology
Addition of downstream hop products
Storing hops

Summary
Overview
References

MASHING

Introduction
The Technology of Mashing

Mash parameters
Selected mash programs

Spring mash program
Separating the mash to achieve ß-Glucan degradation
The maltase mashing method
Dark beer styles

Summary
Overview
References

WORT BOILING AND WORT BOILING SYSTEMS

Introduction
The Technological Basis for Wort Boiling

Maintaining the heated wort at a constant temperature
Evaporation

Evaporative efficiency [3]
Pre-cooling the wort
Downstream evaporation

Interplay between key analytical metrics for wort boiling
Modern wort boiling systems

Internal wort boiling systems
External wort boiling systems
High-temperature wort boiling
Dynamic wort boiling slightly above atmospheric pressure
Gentle boiling with SchoKo
Wort stripping
Vacuum evaporation
Flash evaporation with Varioboil
The Merlin® thin film evaporator
The Jetstar internal calandria
The Stromboli internal calandria
Break material
      Hot break material
      Cold break material
Vapor condensate

Sumary
Overview
References

ACIDIFICATION WITH NATURAL LACTIC ACID

Introduction
Techniques Used in the Production of Sauergut

Lactic acid cultures
The advantages of using natural lactic acid in the form of Sauergut
Cultivation and propagation of lactic acid bacteria
Production of Sauergut in the brewery
Calculating the required volume of lactic acid

Summary
Overview
References

YEAST TECHNOLOGY AND FERMENTATION

Introduction
Yeast Management and Fermentation

Yeast viability and vitality

Yeast viability
Yeast vitality

Yeast cultivation and assimilation techniques

General information regarding yeast assimilation
Procedures for yeast assimilation
Designing a yeast assimilation system

Yeast pitching technology and SO2 formation
Fermentation
Proper handling of cropped yeast
Maturation and lagering

Summary
Overview
References

FILTERABILITY – ISSUES WITH TURBIDITY

Introduction
Attributes Influencing Beer Filterability

The impact of malt quality on beer filterability
The impact of brewhouse operations on filterability
The impact of fermentation and storage on the filterability of beer
Monitoring the filterability of wort and beer as part of a stepwise quality control program
The influence of filtration on turbidity in beer

Summary
Overview
References

BEER FOAM

Introduction
Aspects of Beer Foam

The physics of foam
Biochemical and technological aspects of beer foam

Compounds in beer with a positive impact on foam
Compounds in beer with a negative impact on foam

Influence of brewing techniques on beer foam
Methods for determining foam stability

Summary
Overview
References

SENSORY ANALYSIS

Introduction
Sensory Analysis in the Brewing Industry

Sensory evaluation of beer

Discriminative tests
Descriptive tests
Evaluation tests
      Tasting scheme for determining aging according to Eichhorn
      Tasting scheme according to Kaltner
      EBC Descriptive Analysis
      Tasting scheme for wheat beers
      Modified “trueness-of-type” scheme

Designing rooms for preparing and performing sensory analysis tests
Selecting and training a tasting panel

Selecting candidates to serve as members of the tasting panel
Training to identify the basic tastes
Training with reference substances
Consumer taste tests – expert taste tests
      Consumers as tasters in sensory tests
      Experts as tasters in sensory tests

Statistics in sensory analysis

Univariate evaluation methods
Multivariate evaluation methods

Summary
Overview
References

FLAVOR STABILITY

Introduction
Aspects of Flavor Stability

The fundamentals

The aging process
Reaction pathways of compounds relevant for aging
Effects of antioxidants

Influencing flavor stability in the brewing process

Barley and malting
Milling and mashing in
Mashing
Wort production and wort handling
Fermentation
Lagering and filtration
Filling

Analytical evaluation of flavor stability

Sensory analysis
Detection of aging indicators using gas chromatography
Analytical evaluation of the antioxidative capacity
Determining the reductive capacity
Stability test
Helpful tips for sample collection and storage for stability tests
Thiobarbituric acid index (TBI) and aniline number (AN)
Absorption integral (AI)

Summary
Overview
References

SOUTHERN GERMAN WHEAT BEER

Introduction
Brewing Techniques in Wheat Beer Production

The basics
Wheat as a raw material and in the grain bill
Mashing
Wort boiling procedures
Fermentation
Maturation
The aging process in wheat beer
Unique aspects of wheat beer production
Haze stability in wheat beer

Summary
Overview
References

NON-ALCOHOLIC BEER

Introduction
Production Methods for Non-alcoholic Beers

Physical removal of alcohol

Thermal removal of alcohol
Extraction with CO2
Membrane separation method
      Reverse osmosis
      Dialysis

Biological method

Interrupted fermentation
Bioreactors

Combined technologies

Economic aspects

Summary
Overview
References

BEER RECOVERY

Introduction
Utilizing Beer Recovered from the Production Process

The significance of beer loss
Recovering beer from surplus yeast

Expansion tank
Yeast sieve or filter
Yeast chiller
Yeast storage tank (surplus yeast)
Beer recovery systems
Flash pasteurization
Storage tanks for recovered beer
Surplus yeast tank
Qualitative aspects of recovered beer
Economic aspects of beer recovery

Beer losses during filtration

Required equipment
      Pre-run and post-run collection tank
      Adding recovered beer during production

Other recovered beer streams
Avoiding beer loss and subsequent beer recovery

Summary
Overview
References

BEER AND HEALTH

Introduction
The Effects of Beer on Human Health

Nutritionally relevant substances in beer

Polyphenols
Vitamins
Alcohol
Carbon dioxide
Water
Minerals
Maillard products
Dietary fiber
Bitter acids in hops and hop oils

Beer – a valuable contribution to the human diet
Enriching or excluding particular substances in beer

Increasing xanthohumol content
Increasing folic acid content
Avoiding gluten

Overview
References

MICROBIOLOGY

Introduction
Microorganisms

Pure brewing yeast strains
Foreign yeast strains
Beer-spoiling bacteria
Detection of beer spoilers

Detection of beer-spoiling bacteria
Swab samples from biofilms
Rapid methods based on molecular biology

Detection and identification of yeast strains

Summary
Overview
References

BREWING WITH MALTED AND UNMALTED CEREALS AND PSEUDOCEREALS

Introduction
Carbohydrate-rich Grains

Cereals

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Oats (Avena sativa L.)
Minor millets
      Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.)
      Foxtail millet (Setaria italica [L.] P. Beauv.)
      Fonio (Digitaria exilis)
      Teff (Eragrostis tef [Zucc.] Trotter)
      Finger millet (Eleusine coracana [L.] Gaertn.)
      Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)
Maize or corn (Zea mays L.)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Rye (Secale cereale L.)
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)
Wheat species (Triticum L.)
      Spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta Thell. = Triticum spelta L.)
      Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.)
      Emmer (Triticum dicoccum Schübl.)
      Tetraploid free-threshing (naked) wheat (e.g. durum wheat Triticum durum L., rivet wheat T. turgidum L. and kamut, either T. t. ssp. polonicum [L.] Thell. or ssp.
            turanicum [Jakubz.] A. Löve and D. Löve)
      Triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack)
      Tritordeum (hexaploid)
      Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Pseudocereals

Amaranth grain (primarily: Amaranthus cruentus, A. Hypochondriacus and A. Caudatus)
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

Summary
Overview
References

SPECIALTY BEER

German Brewing on the World Stage
German Beer Styles

Bottom-fermented Beers
Top-fermented Beers

International Specialty Beers
International Beer styles

APPENDIX

Compounds found in Wort
Compounds Found in Beer
Aroma Compounds and Higher Alcohols Found in Beer
Indicator Compounds for Aging
Conversion of Units
List of Abbreviations
Index

Publish Date: 2019
Format: 6.75" x 9.75" hardcover
Pages: 393
Publication Weight: 3 lbs

By W. Back, M. Gastl, M. Krottenthaler, L. Narziß, and M. Zarnkow

Brewing Techniques in Practice

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